5 vias de santo tomas

Ontological argument of st. anselm

The book Summa de Theologia, written by St. Thomas Aquinas had the objective of being a manual for his students. This text is a reinterpretation and adaptation of Aristotle, putting his thought in function of Christianity as a great influence for Aquinas. Each way is a logical process to access the knowledge of the existence of a supreme being, which is God.
«In this world there is movement. And everything that moves is moved by another. Likewise, it is impossible for anything to move and be moved at the same time, or to move itself. Everything that moves needs to be moved by another. But if what is moved by another moves, it needs to be moved by another, and this by another. This procedure cannot be carried on indefinitely, because it would not reach the first mover, and thus there would be no motor at all, for the intermediate motors only move because they are moved by the first mover. . Therefore, it is necessary to arrive at that first motor which no one moves. In this, all recognize a most omnipotent being of whom we have by name God.»

The fifth way of st. thomas

The book Summa de Theologia, written by St. Thomas Aquinas, was intended as a manual for his students. This text is a reinterpretation and adaptation of Aristotle, putting his thought in function of Christianity as a great influence for Aquinas. Each way is a logical process to access the knowledge of the existence of a supreme being, which is God.
«In this world there is movement. And everything that moves is moved by another. Likewise, it is impossible for anything to move and be moved at the same time, or to move itself. Everything that moves needs to be moved by another. But if what is moved by another moves, it needs to be moved by another, and this by another. This procedure cannot be carried on indefinitely, because it would not reach the first mover, and thus there would be no motor at all, for the intermediate motors only move because they are moved by the first mover. . Therefore, it is necessary to arrive at that first motor which no one moves. In this, all recognize a most omnipotent being of whom we have by name God.»

Contingency pathway

The existence» of God does not «necessarily» belong to faith. Man can have access to this truth by means of his reason. This does not detract from the fact that this truth is also revealed (we find it in Sacred Scripture).
For this reason, the First Vatican Council (1869-1870) defined against fideism and agnosticism the universal possibility of knowing God by means of natural reason alone (hence this truth is listed among the «preambles of faith»). In any case, since not all men come to this knowledge by their reason (because of the weakness left in our intelligence by original sin), there is a «moral necessity» that this truth be revealed by God, so that all men may come to it promptly and without any mixture of error.
The most traditional proofs to demonstrate the existence of God are these five ways masterfully exposed by St. Thomas Aquinas («Summa Theologica», Prima pars, question 2, article 3). These are properly metaphysical proofs. These ways are five a posteriori arguments (from the things best known to man) that demonstrate the existence of God; thus, for example:

First way

The book Summa de Theologia, written by St. Thomas Aquinas, was intended as a manual for his students. This text is a reinterpretation and adaptation of Aristotle, putting his thought in function of Christianity as a great influence for Aquinas. Each way is a logical process to access the knowledge of the existence of a supreme being, which is God.
«In this world there is movement. And everything that moves is moved by another. Likewise, it is impossible for anything to move and be moved at the same time, or to move itself. Everything that moves needs to be moved by another. But if what is moved by another moves, it needs to be moved by another, and this by another. This procedure cannot be carried on indefinitely, because it would not reach the first mover, and thus there would be no motor at all, for the intermediate motors only move because they are moved by the first mover. . Therefore, it is necessary to arrive at that first motor which no one moves. In this, all recognize a most omnipotent being of whom we have by name God.»

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